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作者: 东郭有邻   转载 Katiba陷落之日 2011-06-17 08:01:45  [点击:708]
Katiba陷落之日 (2011-06-11 13:17:41)转载
标签: 卡扎菲 班加西 安全部队 利比亚 军营 杂谈 分类: 阿拉伯的故事
The day the Katiba fell
Katiba陷落之日

Evan Hill Last Modified: 01 Mar 2011 08:58
原作:Evan Hill (半岛电视台网站制作人)
原作日期:2011年3月1日8点58分(利比亚时间)
原发:半岛电视台
翻译:@ybburg (榕通社志愿者)

Libya's turning point may have come when protesters overwhelmed a barracks in Benghazi.
反抗军控制了班加西的一座军营,这也许意味着整个利比亚战争的转折。


Gaddafi's forces lost control of the Katiba after three days of fierce clashes [Evan Hill/Al Jazeera]
负隅顽抗了3天之后,卡扎菲的部队失去了对Katiba的控制

Benghazi, Libya - If Benghazi, Libya's second city, has become the symbolic heart of the revolution in this north African nation, then the battle to overwhelm the military garrison here was the revolt's key turning point.
利比亚·班加西 – 如果说,利比亚第2大城市班加西已经成为了这个北非国家的革命核心,那赢得守军军营一役就是革命者的关键转折。

Over the course of three days, civilians opposed to the 42-year rule of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi managed to outlast and overpower a fortified base guarded by detachments of several Libyan military units, one of them the feared and reportedly highly trained Khamis Brigade - a special forces unit led by Gaddafi's youngest son.
在这3天里,反对穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲上校42年统治的平民们设法自保并成功的攻克了由若干利比亚军分遣队重兵把守的军营,这里甚至包括训练有素的Khamis(哈米斯)旅——卡扎菲小儿子领导的一支特种部队。

In the end, both anti-government protesters and Gaddafi loyalists lost hundreds and many more were wounded, and Gaddafi's forces fled the city.
最终,在反政府抗议者和卡扎菲部队都留下了数百具尸体和更多的伤员之后,卡扎菲部队逃离了这座城市。

Benghazi fell completely into opposition hands and became the seat of the national coalition bent on ending the Gaddafi regime. The once-feared ramparts of Gaddafi's security forces sit smoldering and crumbled, a site for tourists.
班加西已经完全被反对派控制,成为了以结束卡扎菲政权为目的的联盟的大本营。曾经令人谈之色变的卡扎菲安全部队基地如今已是一片悄无声息的废墟,只有游客不时出现在此。

A sudden spark
星火燎原

Inside the destroyed walls of the Katiba - which means battalion or phalanx in Arabic, but is shorthand in Benghazi for the garrison - the roof of a grandstand overlooking a broad concrete parade ground droops low, its supporting columns cracked, its white and green walls - the standard colour of Gaddafi's regime - stained black by fire.
在Katiba残缺不堪的围墙中——Katiba在阿拉伯语中是军营或者方阵的意思(Katiba作为特殊称谓不做翻译,下同。 译注),被班加西人作为(卡扎菲安全部队)军营的简称——可以俯瞰其下宽阔的混凝土练兵场的屋顶看台由于立柱的倒塌也已经塌陷了,以卡扎菲政权的标准色涂作白、绿的墙壁也被火熏黑。

A gaping hole in the northern wall of the compound, all twisted metal bars and jagged concrete blocks, marks the spot where protesters first managed to push through under a hail of gunfire. In white spray-paint, someone has written "Martyrs' Square" in Arabic on an unhinged metal gate that hangs off the breach.
北墙上锯齿状的混凝土和金属构件裸露出来的洞口,标记出抗议者们冒着冰雹般的弹雨首先突破的位置。一座金属门上,有人用白色喷漆写了阿拉伯语的“烈士广场”字样。

Though activists were preparing a "day of rage" for February 17 to follow successful uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, protests actually began in Benghazi on February 15, when hundreds of citizens angry over the arrest of human rights lawyer Fathy Terbil took to the streets.
本来抗议者们计划在2月17日这天发起“愤怒日”活动响应突尼斯和埃及革命的成功。但是实际上在2月15日这天,(当局)对人权律师Fathy Terbil的逮捕激怒了数以百计的市民,愤怒的人群冲上街头,发起了抗议。

Terbil had been representing the families of thousands of inmates who were reportedly slaughtered by the regime at Abu Salim prison in Tripoli in 1996. The sudden demonstrations, which evolved into anti-Gaddafi protests, took some young, politically active Benghazi residents by surprise.
Terbil一直以来都在为发生在1996年的当局对Abu Salim监狱囚犯的大屠杀受害者家庭做代理律师。而这次突然的示威活动最终演变成推翻卡扎菲政权性质的反抗,让很多年轻的班加西政治活跃分子都感到意外。

"We just got talking at school and amongst my peers and friends, and you were asked, 'Are you gonna protest on the 17th,' and people were scared and said, 'If a lot of people come out, then I'll come out,'" said Ahmed Sanalla, a 26-year-old UK resident who has spent the past four years studying medicine at Garyounis University in Benghazi.
“(刚开始)我们只是在学校里的同学朋友间谈论,有人问‘你准备参加17号的抗议活动吗?’人们大多有点害怕的回答‘如果去(抗议)的人多,那我就去’”一位在班加西Garyounis大学学习医学4年的英国留学生Ahmed Sanalla说。

"Once they hit the ground, we joined, and then everyone else came along."
“而当他们一上街,我们就加入了,之后其他所有人都跟了上来。”

That first day, anti-Gaddafi protesters clashed with regime supporters on Jamal Abdel Nasser Street, a main thoroughfare that runs through the centre of town toward the Mediterranean Sea.
在第一天里,反卡扎菲抗议者和支持政府的人群在市中心通向地中海的主干线Jamal Abdel Nasser大街上发生了冲突。

A rock-throwing battle erupted between the two sides. At one point, a teenage boy clamoured up a post bearing a portrait of Gaddafi and tore it down. The crowd reacted with joy.
双方之间爆发了一场投掷石块互相攻击的战斗。一个少年大声要求人们弄一张卡扎菲的肖像画供大家攻击,一度让人们忍俊不禁。

Police responded with force. Officers swarmed into the area from the main security headquarters. Armoured trucks fired hot water cannons at the protesters.
警察局动用了武力。安全部队从他们的总部倾巢而出,涌入抗议区域。装甲车向抗议的人群发射高压热水炮。

"That pretty much kicked off the whole thing," Sanalla said.
“这给整件事拉开了序幕,”Sanalla说。

Dozens of deaths
死者无数

On February 16, security forces kept a tight lid on Benghazi. But the next day, the designated "day of rage," a crowd of thousands of people including lawyers and judges gathered in the square outside the city's main courthouse at the water's edge.
2月16日,安全部队将班加西控制得死死的。但是第二天,计划中的“愤怒日”这天,数千名包括律师、法官在内的示威者聚集在滨海的班加西法院广场上。

The rare display of public anger prompted a deadly response from local security forces, who had almost no experience of domestic crowd control. Foreign journalists had yet to reach Benghazi, but witnesses reported that police had quickly opened fire with live ammunition, killing at least six people.
几乎没有处理国内群众抗议事件经验的地方安全部队对这种罕见的群情激愤的情况采取了残酷的高压手段。此时外国记者还未抵达班加西,但据目击者称,警察很快就实弹开火,射杀了至少6人。

Meanwhile, protests sprang up in the cities of Baida and Tobruk, to the east, and the day closed with at least 24 people dead, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.
与此同时,东部的Baida和Tobruk市也发生了抗议活动。据人权观察组织的估计,当天有至少24人死亡。




Destroyed and melted vehicles littered the sprawling Katiba compound. [Evan Hill/Al Jazeera]
军营边胡乱遗弃着损坏并烧毁的汽车[Evan Hill/半岛台]

"The security forces' vicious attacks on peaceful demonstrators lay bare the reality of Muammar Gaddafi's brutality when faced with any internal dissent," Sarah Leah Whitson, the group's Middle East and North Africa director, said.
“安全部队对和平示威者的暴行揭示出卡扎菲对国内异议的残酷态度,”(人权观察)集团中东和北非主任Sarah Leah Whitson说

Gaddafi had apparently had enough. The following day, a Friday, armed men wearing now infamous yellow construction hard hats flooded into Benghazi's streets.
卡扎菲的耐心显然到了极限。第二天,星期五(主麻日),安全部队全副武装,穿着他们现已声名狼藉的黄色建筑工程帽涌入了班加西街头。

Residents say the thugs were ferried into Benghazi's local airport by Afriqiyah airlines from elsewhere in Libya, or from neighbouring countries to the south, such as Chad and Niger.
当地居民说,那群恶棍是乘坐Afriqiyah航空公司的飞机从利比亚各地和南方邻近的乍得和尼日尔等国抵达班加西机场的。

Though many Libyans descend from sub-Saharan ancestry, making darker skin tones and non-Arab facial features a fairly common sight on the streets, anti-regime protesters were quick to label their attackers "African mercenaries".
尽管许多利比亚当地人遗传了他们南部祖先的外观特征,深肤色的非阿拉伯面孔在街上并不算罕见,反政府抗议者还是很快的把攻击他们的武装势力定义为“非洲雇佣军”。

After mid-day prayers, crowds began a funeral procession bound for a local cemetery to honour Thursday's dead. They marched past the main security headquarters in a neighbourhood called Hawari. As they stood outside, chanting in protest, police opened fire from the roof and atop the walls.
在正午的祷告过后,游行队伍去往当地的一个墓地,为周四的逝者举行葬礼游行。游行队伍经过邻近的Hawari区安全部队总部,就在他们站在(安全部队总部)外面高声抗议的时候,警察从屋顶和围墙上方开枪了。

Benghazi fell into chaos. Photographs and video posted on the Internet by residents shows the men in hard hats rampaging through the city's streets, firing handguns into the air and breaking into homes as terrified onlookers scream in horror from their balconies.
班加西陷入一片混乱。当地居民上传到网上的照片和视频揭示了带安全帽的安全部队发疯般的扫荡了城市街道,他们向天鸣枪着闯入居民的房子,而院子不时传来里吓坏了的人们尖叫声。

Witnesses say the men travelled in unmarked civilian cars and ambulances and fired assault rifles indiscriminately from their windows.
目击者称,安全部队坐着没有车牌的私家车和救护车,从车窗里用冲锋枪漫无目的的扫射。

Army troops stationed in the city made encouraging statements to thousands of protesters who remained camped outside the main courthouse, but security forces stormed the crowd in the predawn hours that night, firing tear gas.
武装部队的进驻让留在法院外露营的数千抗议者更加激动,但是该夜临近黎明时分,安全部队用催泪瓦斯袭击了抗议人群。

Human Rights Watch was forced to update its death toll continually; citing sources in Benghazi's hospitals, the organisation said that 35 people had been killed in the city on Friday alone, most by gunfire.
人权观察被迫不断的更新死亡数字;该组织援引班加西医院的消息称,单单周五这天,该市有35人被杀,基本上都是枪杀。

In a country of only six million people - and a city of roughly 750,000 - where families trace their roots to extensive tribal networks, deaths do not go unnoticed or unrequited.
在一个总人口只有600万的国家-以及这个人口大约75万人的城市-家庭之间依靠广泛的部族网络联系着,死亡是不可能被忽视或不了了之的。

"Once blood was spilled, that was it," Sanalla said.
“血流到了地上,仇恨就再也化解不开了,”Sanalla说。

'Let him die'
‘让他死’

The tide began to turn for the anti-regime forces on Saturday. Despite an Internet shut down and heavy restrictions on mobile phone communications, protesters still managed to mass in Benghazi.
舆论从周六这天开始转向反政府一方。尽管网络被切断、手机通讯管治非常严格,抗议者仍然设法在班加西聚集起来。

They focused their rage on whatever symbols of the regime they could lay their hands on. Courts, police stations, prisons and a museum honouring the Gaddafi-written founding text of modern Libya - the Green Book - were all torched, until only the Katiba and the security building in Hawari remained.
他们的怒火倾泻到他们碰到的一切能代表政府的东西上。法院、警察局、监狱和一个以纪念卡扎菲著的当代利比亚著作-绿宝书-的博物馆都被烧毁了,最后只有军营和位于Hawari的安全部队大楼还在。

Standing on the roof of the destroyed security headquarters on Sunday, Mohammed al-Huni, a young protester, recalled the fight. Between the exterior and interior walls of the "muderiya," or directorate, as the compound is called, the ground was still covered with scores of rocks - the protesters' most common weapon.
周日,站在安全部队总部大楼损毁的屋顶上,年轻的抗议者Mohammed al-Huni回忆了那场战斗。在又被称作“muderiya”的总部工事外墙和内墙之间的地面上,仍旧散落着大量的石块 – 抗议者们最常用的武器。

Facing men armed with rifles, the youth threw stones, converging on the building from the north and west. They used homemade explosives to break through outer gates, but under heavy fire from what witnesses identified as 14.5mm anti-aircraft guns, they withdrew.
面对着拿着步枪全副武装的部队,年轻人从西、北两个方向聚集到工事前面投掷石块。他们用自制炸药冲破了外门,但是在据目击者辨别出的14.5毫米口径的防空机枪扫射面前退却了。

Residents described a "massacre"; doctors in Benghazi said children as young as eight had been killed, and grotesque images of bodies dismembered by high-calibre ammunition emerged from Benghazi hospitals.
居民们描述了一场“大屠杀”景象,班加西的医生说最小的死者只有大约8岁,在班加西医院中,被大口径武器肢解的奇形怪状的尸体比比皆是。

Asim Mahmoud, a 23-year-old student in the Garyounis University college of literature, worked occasionally inside the muderiya taking fingerprints for security forces. On Sunday, perusing the wreckage of rooms once occupied by high-ranking officers, he recounted with al-Huni the day the protesters massed and tried to storm the building.
Asim Mahmoud,一名在Garyounis大学文学院读书的23岁学生,在安全部队总部兼职做指纹记录工作。星期日这天,在一片狼藉的曾经被高级官员占用的房间中,他和al-Huni回忆起抗议者聚集并试图攻击大楼的场景。

Mahmoud's cousin had been shot during a confrontation at the Katiba, and he was infuriated by Gaddafi's arrogant statements that described protesters as drug addicts and terrorists. On the Saturday of the first assault, he hid inside with other security employees.
Mahmoud的堂兄在攻击军营的战斗中被枪杀,他也被卡扎菲傲慢的将抗议者称作瘾君子和恐怖分子的言行激怒。在周六的第一轮对抗中,他和安全部队大楼里的一些其他雇员(在大楼内)躲了起来。

The next day, he changed out of his uniform, slipped out a side door, and ran to join the opposition. Al-Huni and Mahmoud now serve together as members of a civilian team guarding the muderiya from looters or Gaddafi loyalists.
第二天,他换下制服,偷偷溜出侧门,加入了反抗者队伍中。Al-Huni和Mahomud现在加入了市民护卫队,防止小偷和卡扎菲支持者接近原安全部队总部。

Crowds drew close to the Katiba walls and began to hurl stones. Soldiers inside responded with gunfire. The exchanges continued until the soldiers called a truce.
人群靠近军营围墙开始投掷石块,里面的守军开枪还击。战斗一直持续到军人们宣布停火。

They called out to the protesters that they were on the people's side, opened the gates and beckoned the men closer to negotiate. Tawfik Omran, a 30-year-old engineer who was filming the confrontation, said his comrades told him to stay behind as they went forward, so he could document what happened.
他们向示威者大喊他们支持人民,然后打开了大门示意人们靠近谈判。30岁的工程师Tawfik Omran拍摄了这个过程,他说他的同志们让他在其他人前进的时候呆在后面(拍摄),然后他记录下了发生的事。

When the youth approached to within around six metres, the army opened fire again, mowing down the front line of protesters. The men around Omran surged forward, yelling "God is great!" Omran turned to hold back a man who was trying to run ahead. The man fell. Omran tried to pick him up by his coat. Then he noticed the blood pouring out; the man had been shot in the neck.
当那几个年轻人靠近到大约6米的位置时,军队又一次开火了,割草般放倒了前排的示威人群。Omran周围的人们高喊着“真主伟大!”向前冲。Omran想拉住一名想往前冲的男子,他倒地了。Omran想用自己的外套拉他起来,这才发现这名男子的血喷涌而出,他被击中了脖子。

Omran was overwhelmed by advancing soldiers. He pointed to the man, saying he had been severely injured and needed to go to the hospital. The soldiers kicked the man. "Let him die," they said, according to Omran. Then they dragged Omran inside the compound and threw him into an underground prison until he was a later saved by protesters.
Omran被冲过来的军人包围了。他指着伤者说他受了伤,需要被马上送往医院。军人们踢了踢他,说“让他死,”,Omran后来回忆道。然后他们把Omran拖进工事,扔到地下监狱关押了起来,直到后来义军将他救出。

The army switches sides
军队倒戈

On Sunday, the anti-regime forces set out to finish the job. Though the day started quietly, protest crowds began to mass in the afternoon. They equipped themselves with "joulateena" - small, homemade bombs that residents traditionally toss into the sea and detonate to kill a dozen fish at a time.
周日,反政府武装打算结束战斗。尽管开始的很早,抗议人群直到下午才开始集结。他们带着“joulateena”-一种当地传统用于在海里炸鱼的自制炸弹作为武器。

Outside the Katiba, as dusk arrived, men driving commandeered bulldozers and trucks loaded with petrol attempted to ram the walls. Many were shot to death behind their drivers' wheels, their vehicles slowing to a halt in the street. Volunteer ambulance drivers careened through the combat, picking up victims and taking them to nearby hospitals.
夜幕降临之后,军营围墙外的人群开着征用来的装满着汽油的推土机和卡车试图炸开围墙。许多人在驾驶室里就被射杀,车子也减速停在街上。志愿急救车驾驶员冒着枪林弹雨将伤者接上车,送往附近的医院。


At some point in the evening, longtime Gaddafi regime loyalist and special forces commander Abdel Fattah Younes defected to the protesters' side.
夜里,长期以来忠于卡扎菲政权的特种部队指挥官Abdel Fattah Younes向反抗军投降。

Troops from his unit, based on the outskirts of town, arrived at the opposite side of the Katiba armed with machine guns and driving trucks mounted with anti-aircraft guns. Two tanks under Younes's command followed.
他麾下驻扎在郊区的部队开至军营外,给反抗军带来了机枪和武装着防空机枪的卡车,之后两辆Younes的坦克也开至。

Younes's was the highest-profile defection and the most immediately beneficial to the protesters, but government troops had been switching sides for days since the uprising began.
Yones的部队是向义军投诚的最高编制也是最及时有效的武装力量,但并不是最早,政府军从起义开始就不断地向义军投诚。

Zakaria Abdelrahman al-Jihani, 24, left his military post on February 15 to return to Benghazi, his hometown.
24岁的Zakaria Abdelrahman al-Jihani 2月15日离开了他的部队回到了家乡班加西。

Standing guard inside a former regime prison in Benghazi on Friday guarding a stockpile of returned weapons, al-Jihani said he had joined the army in 2004 and become a member of the Thafeda Bashariya, a naval commando unit. Before the uprising, his unit was assigned to guard an important oil installation at Ras Lanuf, several hundred kilometers west of Benghazi, near the Gaddafi stronghold of Sirte.
周五,al-Jihani在现在作为武器库的前政府监狱做看守工作,他说他2004年参军,后来成为了海军突击队组织Thafeda Bashariya的一员。起义之前,他的部队被安排看守Ras Lanuf的重要石油设施,那里离班加西几百公里,靠近卡扎菲的军事要塞Sirte。

As protests broke out, al-Jihani's commanders granted him and others leave to return home.
起义开始后,al-Jihani部队的指挥官允许他和他的同僚们回家。

"The only thing in my mind was getting a weapon," he said. "People were fighting with stones. They started shooting them with anti-aircraft guns."
“我现在能想到的唯一需要就是武器,”他说“人们正在用石块对抗对面的防空机枪”

Al-Jihani and around 70 others, including friends from his unit, visited a nearby base the Friday before the Katiba attack and found it empty; the soldiers there had already joined the people, he said. They took rocket-propelled grenade launchers, AK-47s and anti-aircraft guns.
Al-Jihani和他的朋友、同一部队的战友一共70人左右,Katiba之战之前的周五造访了附近的一个基地,那里已经人去楼空;那里的士兵几乎都已经加入到人民一方,他说。他们带着火箭推进榴弹发射器、AK-47和防空机枪(加入义军)。

On Sunday, armed protesters using strategies similar to their comrades at the Katiba overwhelmed the security headquarters in Hawari and began acquiring more weapons there. The attack on the Katiba intensified, and protesters began breaching its walls and torching the barracks near the exterior.
周日,武装起来的义军用他们在Katiba的同志们类似的方式攻占了Hawari的安全部队总部并获得了更多的武器。对Katiba的攻击得到了加强,义军开始烧毁它的外墙和一些外围建筑。

According to some protesters, Younis, a longtime Benghazi resident, granted safe passage out of the city to loyalist troops escaping the Katiba.
据一些抗议者称,本地居民Younis给Katiba的卡扎菲部队提供了逃出班加西的通道。

As anti-regime forces gained access to the interior of the base, they saw evidence of the troops' divided loyalties. Elements of three units had been stationed there to quell the uprising: The Fadheel brigade, out of Sitre; the Khamis brigade, from Tripoli; and the Tariq brigade, which was based in the southern town of Sabha.
当反政府军进入堡垒内部,他们看到了亲卡扎菲部队的分裂。为了平息起义,三支不同的部队被部署到了这里:来自Sitre要塞的Fadheel旅;来自的黎波里的Khamis旅;以及大本营设在南部城市Sabha的Tariq旅。

Some soldiers in the Fadheel brigade, Omran said, were from Benghazi or had familial connections there and refused to fire on the protesters. A dozen or more of them were shot to death by their fellow soldiers, he said. Protesters would later discover the severely burned bodies of soldiers inside the Katiba, their hands tied behind their backs.
Omran解释道,Fadheel旅的很多士兵要么就是班加西人,要么有亲戚在那里,他们拒绝向抗议者开枪。至少有一打这样的士兵被枪决,他说。抗议者们也许晚些时候能从Katiba里找到一些士兵被烧掉的尸体,他们的手都被绑在身后。

On Sunday night, at around 9:30, the Katiba battle ended. Gaddafi loyalists and mercenaries had been killed or captured, or had melted into the countryside or fled back to Tripoli. Opposition forces had won battle to free Benghazi, now they would have to figure out how to govern.
周日晚间9点30左右,Katiba之战结束了。忠于卡扎菲的部队以及雇佣军有的被杀,有的被俘虏,其余的逃到了城外或者逃回了的黎波里。反对派赢得了解放班加西的战斗,也许他们现在得考虑组建政府的事了。

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